Thyroid Hormone Therapy
|Symptoms of hypothyroidism||How is Hypothyroidism treated?|
|Levothyroxine therapy and serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine concentrations.||Thyroid Hormone Therapy|
|Chronic Fatigue Syndrome||Thyroid Hormone Replacement|
|Adrenal Dysfunction and Chronic Stress||Thyroid Imbalance|
|How is CFS Treated||Levothyroxine|
|Thyroid Hormone Therapy|
Symptoms of hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid hormone) include fatigue, cold and heat intolerance, hypotension, fluid retention, dry skin and/or hair, constipation, headaches, low sexual desire, infertility, irregular menstrual periods, aching muscles and joints, depression, anxiety, slowed metabolism and decreased heart rate, memory impairment, enlarged tongue, deep voice, swollen neck, PMS, weight gain, hypoglycemia, and high cholesterol and triglycerides. Yet, more than half of all people with thyroid disease are unaware of their condition.
|Although both T4 (thyroxine, an inactive form that is converted to T3 in other areas of the body) and T3 (triiodothyronine, the active form) are secreted by the normal thyroid gland, many hypothyroid patients are treated only with levothyroxine (synthetic T4). Some hypothyroid patients remain symptomatic, and T3 may also be required for optimal thyroid replacement therapy. However, the only commercially available form of T3 is synthetic liothyronine sodium in an immediate release formulation which is rapidly absorbed, and may result in higher than normal T3 concentrations throughout the body causing serious side effects, including heart palpitations. Research indicates there is a need for sustained-release T3 preparations in order to avoid adverse effects.|
A randomized, double-blind, crossover study found inclusion of T3 in thyroid hormone replacement improved cognitive performance, mood, physical status, and neuropsychological function in hypothyroid patients. Two-thirds of patients preferred T4 plus T3, and tended to be less depressed than after treatment with T4 alone. Patients and their physicians may wish to consider the use of sustained-release T3 in the treatment of hypothyroidism, particularly when the response to levothyroxine (T4) has not been complete. J Endocrinol Invest 2002 Feb;25(2):106-9 Levothyroxine therapy and serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine concentrations.
Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article. N Engl J Med 1999 Feb 11;340(6):424-9 Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism.
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The Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Beth Israel Medical Centre, University Hospital and Manhattan Campus for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, reported the successful management of thyrotoxicosis in a seriously ill 47-year-old man with a perforated gastric ulcer in whom oral intake was contraindicated. Specially prepared suppositories containing 400 mg of propylthiouracil (PTU) were administered rectally every 6 hours.
PTU was substantially absorbed from the rectal suppositories, with serum levels of PTU maintained within the high therapeutic range for 5 days until the patient was able to tolerate orally administered therapy. The patient improved clinically during this treatment. They concluded that this case strongly supports the rectal administration of PTU in suppository form as an appropriate alternative route in any patient with thyrotoxicosis, including the critically ill patient, when oral administration is not possible. Endocr Pract. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):43-7. Rectal administration of propylthiouracil in suppository form in patients with thyrotoxicosis and critical illness: case report and review of literature.
Click here to access the PubMed abstract of this article.